Data is the asset

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TEST, especially data content that is verified by trusted parties, defines the accountability of participants in this inter-connected world, therefore, becomes the binding force in exercising social contracts.

The Goal

Establish up a rigorous reasoning mechanism to ensure all judgements are based on a known set of rules. All rules are also encoded as immutable data, so that all decisions can be traced and justified with respect to these rules. This rigorous mechanism can avoid halting problem by setting up various levels of abstractions, so that decisions can be reached within the domain of defined vocabulary, often known as the domain of partially ordered set. The original concepts of such sound decision procedures can be traced back to Dana Scott[1] and Patrick & Radhia Cousot's work on [2] Abstract Interpretation.

Professor Sandy Pentland and others had published a paper titled Personal Data: The Emergence of a New Asset Class[3]. He is also the founder of the software called: OPAL for Open Algorithm.

Some relevant papers and online articles can be found here[4]:

Data Governance

History of Data Governance
The Notion of Key-Value Pairs

For starters, please watch a presentation on the history of Double entry bookkeeping, titled: Monks, Maths and Magic, by Jane Gleeson White.


Lecture Notes

The following Google Presentation is the slide set for: Intro to Thread 5:ICT Awareness and Competency in Data Governance.


  1. Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter exited with status 126.
  2. Patrick Cousot & Radhia Cousot. Abstract interpretation: a unified lattice model for static analysis of programs by construction or approximation of fixpoints. In Conference Record of the Sixth Annual ACM SIGPLAN-SIGACT Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages, pages 238—252, Los Angeles, California, 1977. ACM Press, New York.
  3. World Economic Forum, Personal Data: The Emergence of a New Asset Class, 2011, URL:, last accessed: May 4, 2021
  4. Virginia Collins,Managing Data as an Asset,,as%20the%20asset%20it%20is.&text=Organizations%20must%20begin%20managing%20data,from%20it%20as%20real%20assets.,The CPA Journal ,June 2019 Issue